Future Prophesies - the Stage is Set (Can Happen Any Day)
ONE WORLD (BABYLON) - GOVERNMENT
Collapse of the World's Governments
United Nations (UN)
Agenda 21 - Climate change and the environment
United Nations 2.0
World Economic Forum (WEF)
New World Order
Smart City Agenda
Where will the One World Government headquarters of the Antichrist be located?
UN 17 Sustainable Development Goals and What They Really Mean
For details and documented proof, see UN Trojan Horse
Goal 1: End poverty in all its forms everywhere.
Translation: Centralized banks, IMF, World Bank, Fed to control all finances, digital one world currency in a cashless society.
Goal 2: End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture.
Goal 3: Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages.
Translation: Mass vaccination, Codex Alimentarius.
Goal 4: Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all.
Translation: UN propaganda, brainwashing through compulsory education from cradle to grave.
Goal 5: Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls.
Translation: Population control through forced “Family Planning”.
Goal 6: Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all.
Translation: Privatize all water sources, don’t forget to add fluoride.
Goal 7: Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all.
Translation: Smart grid with smart meters on everything, peak pricing.
Goal 8: Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all.
Translation: TPP, free trade zones that favor megacorporate interests.
Goal 9: Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation.
Translation: Toll roads, push public transit, remove free travel, environmental restrictions.
Goal 10: Reduce inequality within and among countries.
Translation: Even more regional government bureaucracy like a mutant octopus.
Goal 11: Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable.
Translation: Big brother big data surveillance state.
Goal 12: Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns.
Translation: Forced austerity.
Goal 13: Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts.
Translation: Cap and Trade, carbon taxes/credits, footprint taxes (aka Al Gore’s wet dream).
Goal 14: Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development.
Translation: Environmental restrictions, control all oceans including mineral rights from ocean floors.
Goal 15: Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss.
Translation: More environmental restrictions, more controlling resources and mineral rights.
Goal 16: Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels.
Translation: UN “peacekeeping” missions (ex 1, ex 2), the International Court of (blind) Justice, force people together via fake refugee crises and then mediate with more “UN peacekeeping” when tension breaks out to gain more control over a region, remove 2nd Amendment in USA.
Goal 17: Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development.
Translation: Remove national sovereignty worldwide, promote globalism under the “authority” and bloated, Orwellian bureaucracy of the UN
Does the Bible prophesy a one-world government and a one-world currency in the end times?
The Bible does not use the phrase “one-world government” or “one-world currency” in referring to the end times. It does, however, provide ample evidence to enable us to draw the conclusion that both will exist under the rule of the Antichrist in the last days.
In his apocalyptic vision in the Book of Revelation, the Apostle John sees the “beast,” also called the Antichrist, rising out of the sea having seven heads and ten horns (Revelation 13:1). Combining this vision with Daniel’s similar one (Daniel 7:16-24), we can conclude that some sort of world system will be inaugurated by the beast, the most powerful “horn,” who will defeat the other nine and will begin to wage war against Christians. The ten-nation confederacy is also seen in Daniel’s image of the statue in Daniel 2:41-42, where he pictures the final world government consisting of ten entities represented by the ten toes of the statue. Whoever the ten are and however they come to power, Scripture is clear that the beast will either destroy them or reduce their power to nothing more than figureheads. In the end, they will do his bidding.
John goes on to describe the ruler of this vast empire as having power and great authority, given to him by Satan himself (Revelation 13:2), being followed by and receiving worship from “all the world” (13:3-4), and having authority over “every tribe, people, language and nation” (13:7). From this description, it is logical to assume that this person is the leader of a one-world government which is recognized as sovereign over all other governments. It’s hard to imagine how such diverse systems of government as are in power today would willingly subjugate themselves to a single ruler, and there are many theories on the subject. A logical conclusion is that the disasters and plagues described in Revelation as the seal and trumpet judgments (chapters 6-11) will be so devastating and create such a monumental global crisis that people will embrace anything and anyone who promises to give them relief.
Once entrenched in power, the beast (Antichrist) and the power behind him (Satan) will move to establish absolute control over all peoples of the earth to accomplish their true end, the worship Satan has been seeking ever since being thrown out of heaven (Isaiah 14:12-14). One way they will accomplish this is by controlling all commerce, and this is where the idea of a one-world currency comes in. Revelation 13:16-17 describes some sort of satanic mark which will be required in order to buy and sell. This means anyone who refuses the mark will be unable to buy food, clothing or other necessities of life. No doubt the vast majority of people in the world will succumb to the mark simply to survive. Again, verse 16 makes it clear that this will be a universal system of control where everyone, rich and poor, great and small, will bear the mark on their hand or forehead. There is a great deal of speculation as to how exactly this mark will be affixed, but the technologies that are available right now could accomplish it very easily.
Those who are left behind after the Rapture of the Church will be faced with an excruciating choice—accept the mark of the beast in order to survive or face starvation and horrific persecution by the Antichrist and his followers. But those who come to Christ during this time, those whose names are written in the Lamb’s book of life (Revelation 13:8), will choose to endure, even to martyrdom.
Endgame: The New World Order (Part 1)
Understanding the Times - Jan Markell with Curtis Bowers
Endgame: The New World Order (Part 2)
Understanding the Times - Jan Markell with Curtis Bowers
The One-World Government is Coming - James Kaddis
Government Reset - Don Perkins (Lamb & Lion Conference)
THE RISE OF A ONE WORLD GOVERNMENT
The ultimate sign that you're headed for the worst day of your life would have to be this...You wake up one morning only to realize that your family has suddenly disappeared. So you run to turn on your TV to see what's happening and there you watch a special worldwide news report declaring that millions of people all over the planet have simply vanished. As you spy the Bible on the coffee table, it suddenly dawns on you that your family was right after all when they kept telling you about the rapture of the Church. Then to your horror, you realize that you've been left behind and have been catapulted into mankind's darkest hour, the 7-year Tribulation that really is coming upon the whole world. But thankfully, God is not only a God of wrath; He's a God of love as well. And because He loves you and I, He has given us many warning signs to show us that the Tribulation is near and that His 2nd Coming is rapidly approaching. Therefore, The Final Countdown takes a look at 10 signs given by God to lovingly wake us up so we'd give our lives to Him before it's too late. These signs are the Jewish People, Modern Technology, Worldwide Upheaval, The Rise of Falsehood, The Rise of Wickedness, The Rise of Apostasy, One World Religion, One World Government, One World Economy, and The Mark of the Beast. Like it or not folks, we are headed for The Final Countdown. Please, if you haven't already done so, give your life to Jesus today, because tomorrow may be too late!
The Rise of a One World Government - Part 1
The Rise of a One World Government - Part 2
The Rise of a One World Government - Part 3
The Rise of a One World Government - Part 4
The Rise of a One World Government - Part 5
The Rise of a One World Government - Part 6
COVID Plandemic was Created to Reset the Current Governments and Move Us to a One-World Government
Patrick Wood explained the Agenda 2030 as a plan to destroy capitalism and establish a new international economic order and declare them for sustainable development.
This is sustainable development – sponsored by the World Economic Forum and the United Nations – advocates for:
scientific management of resources consumption;
fintech underlying financial system using blockchain digital currencies and total surveillance;
no private property, resources to be held by a global trust;
no privacy allowed; also,
stressed, that sustainable development, also called technocracy, is absolutely incompatible with free markets.
Since free market can die naturally things are not so easy for the globalists as the ways they found to destroy capitalism like:
withdrawal of energy;
withdrawal of resources;
corrupt the supply chain;
create cataclysmic events; and,
Slogans for the new economic order that we have been seeing more often lately: “you will own nothing and will be happy,” to start from zero and “build back better.”
Then Leslie Manookian explained how that is going on and controlled demolition of both our political and economic systems through:
retention of power;
centralized control of businesses, assets, natural resources and elected and accountable leaders;
super richer elites and a surf class;
zero resources for citizens, the result of political and finance system; and,
why that is happening now in the US – because summarising the 2008/2009 financial crisis – explosion of US debt, US unfunded pension liability, 2019 [Repo] crisis and developing countries borrowed in dollars.
And in Europe it is kind of the same:
2008/2009 financial crisis;
did not write off bank debt;
European debt not consolidated;
European Central Bank owns more than 40% of European debt;
negative interest rates since 2014; and,
unfunded public pensions.
Well, debt cannot be kicked downhill [down the road] for longer. If you want to control people, you have to get rid of small employers. That’s why the small businesses are being destroyed and the Covid crisis was an excuse for that. At the same time, Pharma buys influence in medicine, politics and media.
How are they doing this? Through:
central bank digital currency, that is in the plans;
[ ] transitions;
universal basic income;
elimination of small and medium employers;
banking and big tech;
end of cash; and,
One of the reasons is to cover up the mismanagement.
World Government at the Door
On March 29th and 30th of 2022, global elites gathered for the World Government Summit in Dubai. They talked about working with individual governments in a variety of areas. But make no mistake. Their goal is in their name. They want world government.
The Bible speaks of Antichrist and the False Prophet taking control of the planet by seizing the financial system. This year’s World Government Summit expressed the same idea.
American economist Dr. Pippa Malmgren said, “What underpins a world order is always the financial system…. And what we’re seeing in the world today, I think, is we are on the brink of a dramatic change where we are about to—and I’ll say this boldly—we’re about to abandon the traditional system of money and accounting, and introduce a new one. And the new one, the new accounting is what we call blockchain. It means digital, it means having an almost perfect record of every single transaction that happens in the economy.”
The context proves that she’s talking about a “world order.” Therefore, she must be referring to every single transaction in the world economy. “What underpins a world order,” she said, “is always the financial system.” She says “boldly” that, “We’re about to abandon the traditional system of money and accounting, and introduce a new one.”
If you want to remake a civilization, remake its financial system. And that’s what they’re trying to do—not for a single civilization, but for the whole world. It will ultimately lead to the “mark of the beast,” and the totalitarian world system necessary to enforce it.
She says that the new money will be based on the blockchain technology that now underpins digital currencies such as Bitcoin. She then makes an important distinction between present digital currencies and future ones. “This new money,” she says, “will be sovereign in nature. Most people think that digital money is crypto, and private. But I see our superpowers introducing digital currency. The Chinese were the first, the US is on the brink, I think, of moving in the same direction. The Europeans have committed to that as well.”
According to the Atlantic Council, at least 91 countries are already developing digital currencies. At first, this new kind of money will augment cash. But globalists admit that their real goal is to supplant cash entirely. Digital currencies will not stop terrorists, tax cheats, or other criminals until such currencies completely replace cash and fully interconnect. Unlike Bitcoin, government versions of digital currencies will not be private, and their users will not be anonymous.
Like all digital data, the new currencies will be made of zeroes and ones, and interpreted by machines. For that reason, “digital euros,” “digital dollars,” and the others can easily be made to work together as a single currency. With that, world elites will have achieved the goal Dr. Malmgren states so well. They will have “an almost perfect record of every single transaction that happens in the economy.”
And when they implement their system globally, they will have a “record of every single transaction that happens in the economy” of the entire planet.
We find this high-tech scenario in a document written over 1,900 years ago. Revelation 13:17 (NKJV) describes it like this: “No one may buy or sell except one who has the mark or the name of the beast, or the number of his name.” A person will not be allowed to buy or sell unless he can access the global grid of digital money. And when the Antichrist reigns, only those who carry his mark will have that access.
The Hal Lindsey Report
How Governments Collapse (and How Close We May Be)
One of the most notable dynasties in Chinese history, the Han is considered the foundation of China as we know it today. Its government existed for about 400 years (202 BC – 220 AD), and at its height, it was a center of progress and advancement in the ancient world.
The collapse of this empire actually spans just over 30 years. Historically, it began in 189 AD, when Emperor Ling died without naming an heir. But long before that, the emperors began growing their harems, and they needed their women protected from outside interlopers and each other. Thus, eunuchs were established as the protectors of the concubines. As time progressed, the eunuchs, having been given so much trust and having seen so much of what happened behind the scenes, started requesting more of the emperors, and the emperors started giving more and more trust and power to the eunuchs.
It came to the point that the eunuchs were essentially running the government and giving prime political positions to friends, family, and allies. It was not long before the bureaucracies of the Han became totally corrupt, demanding bribes and recognition from local governors and citizens. It infuriated the people.
Emperor Ling, meanwhile, withdrew more and more from governance and let the eunuchs completely run the show. The Emperor spent all his time with his concubines and attending military parades. He was someone who seemed to exist only for show while the eunuchs did everything in his name but for their own benefit.
A series of rebellions that started before Emperor Ling’s death saw the rise of several warlords, each of whom saw how corrupt and weak the Han Dynasty had become and how easy it might be to take charge. The biggest rebellion, the Yellow Turban Rebellion, lasted a year and spanned nearly the entire empire. Religious leaders inspired farmers and citizens long-abused by the government to rise up and fight. There was a call from the empire to all warlords to step up and fight.
Those warlords saw the eunuchs as responsible for the rebellions and the weakness of the Han. Eventually, they were wiped out, but the damage was done. China would, after decades of conflict, be divided into three kingdoms and eventually reunified under the Jin.
In the United States today, you have a politicized CDC that insists everyone should mask up to fight COVID-19, despite there being no evidence that masking ever truly worked. School boards are fighting parents seemingly at every turn, insisting that parents have no right to get involved with how education is run. The Biden administration has failed on everything from the withdrawal from Afghanistan to the economy to COVID-19. Our criminal justice system has had several high-profile unjust killings of black men (and in Louisiana, for example, a cover-up that extended into the highest levels of command).
All this and so much more. Is it any wonder that the idea of systemic failures of the system can resonate so loudly with both sides of the political aisle?
Like the Han, one of the biggest drivers of civil unrest is a lack of faith and trust in the system, our government, and our leaders. There is no reason to believe that simply voting for someone else will help. People are sent to Washington D.C. all the time on the promise of change and rarely do they do much more than become part of the system. Nothing changes. Bureaucracies become more entrenched and untouchable. Political favors are exchanged and cashed in.
No government can truly function like this. No government can exist without the support of its people, and yet it is really and truly trying. There has to be change, but it has to be something radical. Not a violent overthrow, and not purely partisan. It has to be across all parties. It has to be everyone deciding that, more than politics, our government has to function by listening to its people, not ruling over them. There are autocratic tendencies on all sides, and we have to eliminate that.
When you look at the history of our founding, it is a story of compromises that give the power of the government first and foremost to the people. But, over time, that power was taken away. Legislative power was given to bureaucratic institutions unaccountable to the legislative branch and uncontrollable by the executive. The executive wields more power than it should and is checked only by the judicial. The system is entirely out of balance.
The Han Dynasty collapsed because it did not have the trust of its people and they rebelled. The United States may not collapse, but it will continue to de-evolve and stop functioning entirely if it cannot regain the trust of its people. The problem is that no one seems willing to do that. They just want power for themselves to manage the decline.
The Collapse of Government – The Rise of Resistance and Awareness
Wherever you look in the world today, governance is failing and governments are falling. And even where governments hold-on, premiers, prime ministers, presidents and parliamentarians tumble around them; disgraced and exposed for one seedy scandal after another.
Be it money, sex, fraud, despotism, embezzlement or quite simply a pandemic of lies. It barely matters, over and over again the inimitable lust for power takes precedence over the responsibility to earn the trust of the nation.
So widespread has this ‘failure to govern’ epidemic become that one is justified in asking whether the electoral system – which supposedly underlies ‘democracy’ – has any merit left in it at all?
Well, you might say “It’s not the system it’s the quality of the candidates that’s the problem.” And clearly that is a big problem, as evidenced by the pandemic of failure to deliver.
But isn’t there something wrong with expecting unaware, uninvolved and unsuspecting members of the general public to choose who should lead their countries? Isn’t this a receipt for chaos and corruption?
Yes, quite obviously it is. By and large, whoever is chosen to take on this leadership role turns out to be a mirror of the mentality which put them there.
This seems to come as a shock to most. The electorate appears to want someone on the platform who miraculously rises above their own moral, intellectual and visionary shortcomings. They want a bold, brave and bright Moses figure to lead them out of the desert of their daily afflictions, which, they believe, must have been caused by the previous ‘useless leaders’ they had such unreasonable hopes for.
So the merry-go-round continues. Each time getting more surreal and more systemic in its inability to address the real needs of the country, its people, or any fundamental sense of direction and purpose.
Here we are.
But the laws of the universe strongly suggest that anything which becomes fundamentally incapable of evolving into something better, but lingers on in a state of abject sterility, lands up in – or as – a black hole. An inwardly collapsing gravitational graveyard.
The only way such an outcome can be circumvented, here on earth, is by many people becoming individually aware enough to take back control of their destinies; while recognising that – together – they can run their lives according to another formula.
We are all faced with this choice, never more starkly than today. Either get sucked into the black hole which awaits all those who do nothing/take no action – or – form aware, decentralised, autonomous groups with the determination to act as a responsible governing body at the neighbourhood and community level.
The key words are ‘aware’ and ‘responsible’. Without awareness no action can serve the cause of breaking free. Without accepting a level of responsibility, no action can become reality.
What exactly is this ‘awareness’ I refer to?
Quite simply, it is a condition in which recognition of the endemic levels of falsity and deception in society – and particularly in the political sphere – lead to the realisation that one must stop mindlessly obeying authoritarian voices of destruction and take action to establish a better and more just way of life.
You see, this is where so many submit to the coward within. Instead of following their heart led instincts to rebel, they submit to their ‘false intellect’ whose judgement is always “that’s not possible because we can never be more powerful than ‘them’.”
So Mr and Mrs X, who have moaned almost ceaselessly about the corruption and inept performance of those they elected (or didn’t) into office, take the standard position that in spite of witnessing their elected representatives being incapable of dispensing justice and common sense, the only thing to do is wait for the next election and once again try to get their candidate/party into office. This is, let us not mince our words, a direct route to the black hole.
Unfortunately, or perhaps fortunately, there will not be another ‘election’. This sham is over. The entire tragic-comedy has already imploded. If you think in terms of ‘democracy’ and ‘governance according to the will of the people’, the unaware can’t, or won’t, believe that this ship has sunk to the bottom and cannot be salvaged.
But for the aware, it’s no longer about choices. We must take the tiller and face the music.
It’s not a lullaby or a sonata, but a hand to hand grappling with those who want to destroy us. Which, in some cases, includes those indoctrinated ones who live amongst us and follow orders. Orders that emanate from such devious old hands as Klaus Schwab, head of the World Economic Forum and his fellow henchmen. Orders that are passed-on and repeated by the brain frozen bureaucrats and technocrats whose jobs depend upon being proper robots.
There are no more bona fide ‘governments’ in existence in this world. Just a facade of fake interest directed towards those who put the elected members on their pedestals.
While these members, enjoying their apotheosis of parliamentary power, have their minds only on the next election, defection or rejection. That’s called ‘government’.
While that stuff will no doubt continue to be played-out on the world stage for a while longer, it is simply a facade for our distraction.
This planet is the territory of ‘The Great Reset’ now. An instrument for enforcing what is euphemistically called ‘net zero’.
What kind of gibberish is ‘net zero’? Does it mean anything?
No, actually it doesn’t. It is simply the reductionist algorithm (Al-Gore-rythm) and digital way of getting around having to say ‘zero carbon’. Because ‘zero carbon’ has been exposed as meaning ‘zero CO2’. And ‘zero CO2’ means zero life on Earth. The black hole.
Yes, under Herr Klaus Schwab’s Fourth Reich, we will be disposable.
Since, in some circles, it has been known for years that depopulation and the reprogramming of those that remain, is the true meaning of the two words ‘Great Reset’. And ‘The Fourth Industrial Revolution’ is nothing less than the techno-binary control mechanism for the digitalisation and robotisation of human kind.
For the aware, the time for debate about the nature of what lies ahead, is passed.
The aware are ‘The Resistance’.
‘The Resistance’ is a four dimensional energetic force, operating on physical, mental, psychic and spiritual planes. It encompasses a rising consciousness and capacity for universal vision and action.
The enemy of mankind operates on just two/three dimensional planes. It lacks any warmth or empathy. It is devoid of spirituality. It is coldly wedded to the material world and deeply fears the manifestation of spirit and human courage. It knows not love at all. But does know ‘how to smile’.
‘The Resistance’ is the new government. It will not need to be elected, it will simply come to be.
It is already apparent – and is growing. It is you and I, God and the future of Life on Earth.
Can a collapse of global civilization be avoided?
Environmental problems have contributed to numerous collapses of civilizations in the past. Now, for the first time, a global collapse appears likely. Overpopulation, overconsumption by the rich and poor choices of technologies are major drivers; dramatic cultural change provides the main hope of averting calamity. (Note the source of this article)
Keywords: population, consumption, environment, agriculture, climate, culture
Virtually every past civilization has eventually undergone collapse, a loss of socio-political-economic complexity usually accompanied by a dramatic decline in population size . Some, such as those of Egypt and China, have recovered from collapses at various stages; others, such as that of Easter Island or the Classic Maya, were apparently permanent [1,2]. All those previous collapses were local or regional; elsewhere, other societies and civilizations persisted unaffected. Sometimes, as in the Tigris and Euphrates valleys, new civilizations rose in succession. In many, if not most, cases, overexploitation of the environment was one proximate or an ultimate cause .
But today, for the first time, humanity's global civilization—the worldwide, increasingly interconnected, highly technological society in which we all are to one degree or another, embedded—is threatened with collapse by an array of environmental problems. Humankind finds itself engaged in what Prince Charles described as ‘an act of suicide on a grand scale’ , facing what the UK's Chief Scientific Advisor John Beddington called a ‘perfect storm’ of environmental problems . The most serious of these problems show signs of rapidly escalating severity, especially climate disruption. But other elements could potentially also contribute to a collapse: an accelerating extinction of animal and plant populations and species, which could lead to a loss of ecosystem services essential for human survival; land degradation and land-use change; a pole-to-pole spread of toxic compounds; ocean acidification and eutrophication (dead zones); worsening of some aspects of the epidemiological environment (factors that make human populations susceptible to infectious diseases); depletion of increasingly scarce resources [6,7], including especially groundwater, which is being overexploited in many key agricultural areas ; and resource wars . These are not separate problems; rather they interact in two gigantic complex adaptive systems: the biosphere system and the human socio-economic system. The negative manifestations of these interactions are often referred to as ‘the human predicament’ , and determining how to prevent it from generating a global collapse is perhaps the foremost challenge confronting humanity.
The human predicament is driven by overpopulation, overconsumption of natural resources and the use of unnecessarily environmentally damaging technologies and socio-economic-political arrangements to service Homo sapiens’ aggregate consumption [11–17]. How far the human population size now is above the planet's long-term carrying capacity is suggested (conservatively) by ecological footprint analysis [18–20]. It shows that to support today's population of seven billion sustainably (i.e. with business as usual, including current technologies and standards of living) would require roughly half an additional planet; to do so, if all citizens of Earth consumed resources at the US level would take four to five more Earths. Adding the projected 2.5 billion more people by 2050 would make the human assault on civilization's life-support systems disproportionately worse, because almost everywhere people face systems with nonlinear responses [11,21–23], in which environmental damage increases at a rate that becomes faster with each additional person. Of course, the claim is often made that humanity will expand Earth's carrying capacity dramatically with technological innovation , but it is widely recognized that technologies can both add and subtract from carrying capacity. The plough evidently first expanded it and now appears to be reducing it . Overall, careful analysis of the prospects does not provide much confidence that technology will save us  or that gross domestic product can be disengaged from resource use .
2. Do current trends portend a collapse?
What is the likelihood of this set of interconnected predicaments  leading to a global collapse in this century? There have been many definitions and much discussion of past ‘collapses’ [1,3,28–31], but a future global collapse does not require a careful definition. It could be triggered by anything from a ‘small’ nuclear war, whose ecological effects could quickly end civilization , to a more gradual breakdown because famines, epidemics and resource shortages cause a disintegration of central control within nations, in concert with disruptions of trade and conflicts over increasingly scarce necessities. In either case, regardless of survivors or replacement societies, the world familiar to anyone reading this study and the well-being of the vast majority of people would disappear.
How likely is such a collapse to occur? No civilization can avoid collapse if it fails to feed its population. The world's success so far, and the prospective ability to feed future generations at least as well, has been under relatively intensive discussion for half a century [33–40]. Agriculture made civilization possible, and over the last 80 years or so, an industrial agricultural revolution has created a technology-dependent global food system. That system, humanity's single biggest industry, has generated miracles of food production. But it has also created serious long-run vulnerabilities, especially in its dependence on stable climates, crop monocultures, industrially produced fertilizers and pesticides, petroleum, antibiotic feed supplements and rapid, efficient transportation.
Despite those food production miracles, today at least two billion people are hungry or poorly nourished. The Food and Agriculture Organization estimates that increasing food production by some 70 per cent would be required to feed a 35 per cent bigger and still growing human population adequately by 2050 . What are the prospects that H. sapiens can produce and distribute sufficient food? To do so, it probably will be necessary to accomplish many or all of the following tasks: severely limit climate disruption; restrict expansion of land area for agriculture (to preserve ecosystem services); raise yields where possible; put much more effort into soil conservation ; increase efficiency in the use of fertilizers, water and energy; become more vegetarian; grow more food for people (not fuel for vehicles); reduce food wastage; stop degradation of the oceans and better regulate aquaculture; significantly increase investment in sustainable agricultural and aquacultural research; and move increasing equity and feeding everyone to the very top of the policy agenda.
Most of these long-recommended tasks require changes in human behaviour thus far elusive. The problem of food wastage and the need for more and better agricultural research have been discussed for decades. So have ‘technology will save us’ schemes such as building ‘nuclear agro-industrial complexes’ , where energy would be so cheap that it could support a new kind of desert agriculture in ‘food factories’, where crops would be grown on desalinated water and precisely machine fertilized. Unhappily, sufficiently cheap energy has never been produced by nuclear power to enable large-scale agriculture to move in that direction. Nor has agriculture moved towards feeding people protein extracted from leaves or bacteria grown on petroleum [43, pp. 95–112]. None of these schemes has even resulted in a coordinated development effort. Meanwhile, growing numbers of newly well-off people have increased demand for meat , thereby raising global demand for feedgrains.
Perhaps even more critical, climate disruption may pose insurmountable biophysical barriers to increasing crop yields. Indeed, if humanity is very unlucky with the climate, there may be reductions in yields of major crops , although near-term this may be unlikely to affect harvests globally . Nonetheless, rising temperatures already seem to be slowing previous trends of increasing yields of basic grains [45,47], and unless greenhouse gas emissions are dramatically reduced, dangerous anthropogenic climate change  could ravage agriculture. Also, in addition to falling yields from many oceanic fish stocks because of widespread overfishing , warming and acidification of the oceans threaten the protein supply of some of the most nutritionally vulnerable people , especially those who cannot afford to purchase farmed fish.
Unfortunately, the agricultural system has complex connections with all the chief drivers of environmental deterioration. Agriculture itself is a major emitter of greenhouse gases and thus is an important cause of climate disruption as well as being exceptionally vulnerable to its consequences. More than a millennium of change in temperature and precipitation patterns is apparently now entrained , with the prospect of increasingly severe storms, droughts, heat waves and floods, all of which seem already evident and all of which threaten agricultural production.
Land is an essential resource for farming, and one facing multiple threats. In addition to the serious and widespread problems of soil degradation, sea-level rise (the most certain consequence of global warming) will take important areas out of production either by inundating them (a 1 m rise would flood 17.5% of Bangladesh ), exposing them to more frequent storm surges, or salinizing coastal aquifers essential for irrigation water. Another important problem for the food system is the loss of prime farmland to urbanization, a trend that seems certain to accelerate  as population growth steadily erodes the per capita supply of farmland.
The critical importance of substantially boosting the inadequate current action on the demographic problem can be seen in the time required to change the trajectory of population growth humanely and sensibly. We know from such things as the World War II mobilizations that many consumption patterns can be altered dramatically within a year, given appropriate incentives . If food shortages became acute, then a rapid reaction would ensue as hunger became much more widespread. Food prices would rise, and diets would temporarily change (e.g. the number of meals consumed per day or amount of meat consumed) to compensate the shortage. Over the long term, however, expanding the global food supply and distributing it more equitably would be a slow and difficult process. Even though a major famine might well provoke investment in long-needed improvements in food production and distribution, they would take time to plan, test and implement.
Furthermore, agriculture is a leading cause of losses of biodiversity and thus of the critical ecosystem services supplied to agriculture itself (e.g. pollination, pest control, soil fertility, climate stability) and other human enterprises. Farming is also a principal source of global toxification, as has been clear since the days of Carson , exposing the human population to myriad subtle poisons. These pose further potential risks to food production.
3. What needs to be done to avoid a collapse?
The threat from climate disruption to food production alone means that humanity's entire system for mobilizing energy needs to be rapidly transformed. Warming must be held well below a potential 5°C rise in global average temperature, a level that could well bring down civilization . The best estimate today may be that, failing rapid concerted action, the world is already committed to a 2.4°C increase in global average temperature . This is significantly above the 2°C estimated a decade ago by climate scientists to be a ‘safe’ limit, but now considered by some analysts to be too dangerous [58,59], a credible assessment, given the effects seen already before reaching a one degree rise. There is evidence, moreover, that present models underestimate future temperature increase by overestimating the extent that growth of vegetation can serve as a carbon sink  and underestimating positive feedbacks .
Many complexities plague the estimation of the precise threats of anthropogenic climate disruption, ranging from heat deaths and spread of tropical diseases to sea-level rise, crop failures and violent storms. One key to avoiding a global collapse, and thus an area requiring great effort and caution is avoiding climate-related mass famines. Our agricultural system evolved in a geological period of relatively constant and benign climate and was well attuned to twentieth-century conditions. That alone is cause for substantial concern as the planet's climates rapidly shift to new, less predictable regimes. It is essential to slow that process. That means dramatically transforming much of the existing energy mobilization infrastructure  and changing human behaviour to make the energy system much more efficient. This is possible; indeed, sensible plans for doing it have been put forward [63,64], and some progress has been made. The central challenge, of course, is to phase out more than half of the global use of fossil fuels by 2050 in order to forestall the worst impacts of climate disruption, a challenge the latest International Energy Agency edition of World Energy Outlook makes look more severe . This highlights another dilemma. Fossil fuels are now essential to agriculture for fertilizer and pesticide manufacture, operation of farm machinery, irrigation (often wasteful), livestock husbandry, crop drying, food storage, transportation and distribution. Thus, the phase-out will need to include at least partial substitution of non-fossil fuels in these functions, and do so without greatly increasing food prices.
Unfortunately, essential steps such as curbing global emissions to peak by 2020 and reducing them to half of present levels by 2050  are extremely problematic economically and politically. Fossil fuel companies would have to leave most of their proven reserves in the ground, thus destroying much of the industry's economic value . Because the ethics of some businesses include knowingly continuing lethal but profitable activities , it is hardly surprising that interests with large financial stakes in fossil fuel burning have launched a gigantic and largely successful disinformation campaign in the USA to confuse people about climate disruption [69,70] and block attempts to deal with it .
One recurrent theme in analyses of the food problem is the need for closing ‘yield gaps’ [72–74]. That means raising yields in less productive systems to those typical of industrial agriculture. But climatic conditions may change sufficiently that those industrial high yields can themselves no longer be sustained . Thus, reducing the chances of a collapse calls for placing much more effort into genetic and ecological research related to agriculture  and adopting already known environmental-friendly techniques, even though that may require trading off immediate corporate profits for social benefits or long-term sustainability .
Rationalizing energy mobilization alone may not be enough to be enough to maintain agricultural production, let alone allow its great expansion. Human water-handling infrastructure will have to be re-engineered for flexibility to bring water to crops in an environment of constantly changing precipitation patterns . This is critical, for although today only about 15 per cent of agricultural land is irrigated, it provides some 40 per cent of the grain crop yield. It seems likely that farming areas now rain-fed may someday need to be irrigated, whereas irrigation could become superfluous elsewhere, and both could change more or less continually. For this and many other reasons, the global food system will need to quickly evolve an unprecedented flexibility, never before even contemplated.
One factor making the challenges more severe is the major participation in the global system of giant nations whose populations have not previously enjoyed the fossil energy abundance that brought Western countries and Japan to positions of affluence. Now they are poised to repeat the West's energy ‘success’, and on an even greater scale. India alone, which recently suffered a gigantic blackout affecting 300 million people, is planning to bring 455 new coal plants on line. Worldwide more than 1200 plants with a total installed capacity of 1.4 million megawatts are planned , much of that in China, where electricity demand is expected to skyrocket. The resultant surge in greenhouse gases will interact with the increasing diversion of grain to livestock, stimulated by the desire for more meat in the diets of Indians, Chinese and others in a growing global middle class.
4. Dealing with problems beyond food supply
Another possible threat to the continuation of civilization is global toxification. Adverse symptoms of exposure to synthetic chemicals are making some scientists increasingly nervous about effects on the human population [77–79]. Should a global threat materialize, however, no planned mitigating responses (analogous to the ecologically and politically risky ‘geoengineering’ projects often proposed to ameliorate climate disruption ) are waiting in the wings ready for deployment.
Much the same can be said about aspects of the epidemiological environment and the prospect of epidemics being enhanced by rapid population growth in immune-weakened societies, increased contact with animal reservoirs, high-speed transport and the misuse of antibiotics . Nobel laureate Joshua Lederberg had great concern for the epidemic problem, famously stating, ‘The survival of the human species is not a preordained evolutionary program’ [82, p. 40]. Some precautionary steps that should be considered include forbidding the use of antibiotics as growth stimulators for livestock, building emergency stocks of key vaccines and drugs (such as Tamiflu), improving disease surveillance, expanding mothballed emergency medical facilities, preparing institutions for imposing quarantines and, of course, moving as rapidly as possible to humanely reduce the human population size. It has become increasingly clear that security has many dimensions beyond military security [83,84] and that breaches of environmental security could risk the end of global civilization.
But much uncertainty about the human ability to avoid a collapse still hinges on military security, especially whether some elements of the human predicament might trigger a nuclear war. Recent research indicates that even a regional-scale nuclear conflict, as is quite possible between India and Pakistan, could lead to a global collapse through widespread climatic consequences . Triggers to conflict beyond political and religious strife easily could include cross-border epidemics, a need to gain access to food supplies and farmland, and competition over other resources, especially agricultural water and (if the world does not come to its energy senses) oil. Finding ways to eliminate nuclear weapons and other instruments of mass destruction must move even higher on civilization's agenda , because nuclear war would be the quickest and surest route to a collapse .
In thinking about the probability of collapse, one must obviously consider the social disruptions associated with elements of the predicament. Perhaps at the top of the list should be that of environmental refugees . Recent predictions are that environmental refugees could number 50 million by 2020 . Severe droughts, floods, famines and epidemics could greatly swell that number. If current ‘official’ predictions of sea-level rise are low (as many believe they are), coastal inundations alone could generate massive human movements; a 1 m rise would directly affect some 100 million people, whereas a 6 m rise would displace more than 400 million . Developing a more comprehensive system of international governance with institutions planning to ameliorate the impacts of such catastrophes would be a major way to reduce the odds of collapse.
5. The role of science
The scientific community has repeatedly warned humanity in the past of its peril [90–102], and the earlier warnings [93,103–107] about the risks of population expansion and the ‘limits to growth’ have increasingly been shown to be on the right track [108–111] (but see Hayes ). The warnings continue [109,112–119]. Yet many scientists still tend to treat population growth as an exogenous variable, when it should be considered an endogenous one—indeed, a central factor . Too many studies asking ‘how can we possibly feed 9.6 billion people by 2050?’ should also be asking ‘how can we humanely lower birth rates far enough to reduce that number to 8.6?’ To our minds, the fundamental cure, reducing the scale of the human enterprise (including the size of the population) to keep its aggregate consumption within the carrying capacity of Earth , is obvious but too much neglected or denied. There are great social and psychological barriers in growthmanic cultures to even considering it. This is especially true because of the ‘endarkenment’—a rapidly growing movement towards religious orthodoxies that reject enlightenment values such as freedom of thought, democracy, separation of church and state, and basing beliefs and actions on empirical evidence. They are manifest in dangerous trends such as climate denial, failure to act on the loss of biodiversity and opposition to condoms (for AIDS control) as well as other forms of contraception . If ever there was a time for evidence-based (as opposed to faith-based) risk reduction strategies [